Short Answers (Answer the following questions. Cite sources when appropriate). Each answer should be approximately one page double-spaced.

__Part I (Math) (Choose 2 out of the 4 questions: 5 points each answer for 10 points total.) __

1. Why is it important to teach mathematics understanding/reasoning to young children and not just mathematics procedures (hint: think about motivation, comprehension, application, cognition, and integration into other subjects)?

2. What principles/rules of the number system do children need to know in order to make the transition to operations (addition and subtraction) in early elementary school (hint: think about the earliest number knowledge concepts they learn and how these concepts go together to form a comprehensive understanding of number)?

3. How can early math standards be used to develop a comprehensive and integrated math curriculum (hint: think about the scope and sequence of the various math competencies children should know in early childhood)?

4. Describe a math competency (e.g., measurement) and describe how you would teach it through Science and Art (hint: think about how you use math in these subjects and how you would emphasize it in an activity).

__Part 2: Science (Choose 2 out of the 4 questions to answer) 5 points each answer for 10 points total. )__

1. Describe a science competency (e.g., experimentation) and describe how you would teach it through Cooking and Art (hint: think about how you use science in these subjects and how you would emphasize it in an activity). 2. In what ways are children like natural scientists, closely observing the natural world and describing, categorizing and drawing conclusions about what they observe (hint: think about how children explore in the natural world)?3. In what ways are children like experimental scientists, forming hypotheses, testing those hypotheses, and learning from the results of their inquiries (hint: think about how children use their curiosity to see how the world works)? 4. How can early science standards be used to develop a comprehensive and integrated science curriculum (think about the scope and sequence of the various science competencies children should know in early childhood)?

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