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Draft of a research material (survey)

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Impacts of Service Interruption on ADA students with learning disabilities
Stella Witherspoon
PSY 520
Dr Kimberly Griffith
February 20th, 2023
Impacts of Service Interruption on ADA Students with Learning disabilities
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Service interruption affects students with learning difficulties due to the lack of
accessible housing, employment opportunities, or other facilities that can meet their needs, many
college students with disabilities are unable to finish their studies or support themselves. Many
of these students have been able to attend college in the past by living off campus, but now that
many residential colleges have moved towards co-op programs, this option is no longer viable
for them (Cory, 2012, p29). In addition, many of these students work part-time to cover their
expenses and make ends meet. If they lose their job due to service disruption, they will not be
able to continue working.
Further, many students also rely on certain items such as textbooks, computer equipment,
and software for their education (Solovieva & Bock, 2014, p 120). If these items are lost due to
service disruption, these students will not be able to complete their coursework or graduations!
This led to the rise of interest in studying the impacts of service interruption on students with
learning disabilities through personal experiences from the classroom setting to clarify how
disruptive it can be for a student with a learning disability. For instance, if a student who has a
learning disability can access technology and have access to information, they can use that as an
aid to help them learn. The effect of assistive technology on learning difficulties students’
capacity to succeed in college as their enrollment grows and postsecondary education is
complete is acknowledged (Day, 1996). However, suppose the technology is unavailable or there
is no internet access. In that case, it can be difficult for them to keep up with their assignments or
even complete classwork due to their learning disabilities. This should be studied further by
researchers because there are many implications for these students’ futures if they do not receive
adequate support during service interruptions.
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Search Terms
Service interruptions
Learning disabilities
ADA students
Preliminary Research Question
What is the likelihood that service interruptions will harm students with learning disabilities?
Research Question
The question to be examined is: “Does the interruption of services to a learning disability
student have a negative impact on ADA students besides their academic performance?” This
question has relevance in psychology because it is important to understand how the interruption
of services affects learning disability students, especially regarding their academic performance,
among other affected areas. Existing research has shown that students who cannot attend school
due to a learning disability may experience social isolation and lack of support, leading to lower
academic performance. Therefore, the proposed research question will help us determine whether
or not students with learning disabilities are also impacted by service interruption in other
unidentified areas.
Other research questions would be: How do service interruptions affect the academic
performance of ADA students with learning disabilities? What are the emotional and
psychological impacts of service interruptions on ADA students with learning disabilities?
How do service interruptions impact the ability of ADA students with learning disabilities
to access accommodations and resources? What strategies can be implemented to support ADA
students with learning disabilities during times of service interruptions?
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Hypothesis
Service interruption will have a negative impact on ADA students with learning
disabilities. Service interruptions can have a significant impact on the academic performance of
ADA students with learning disabilities. For example, if a student relies on assistive technology
or other accommodations to access the curriculum, service interruptions can disrupt their ability
to use these tools. Additionally, service interruptions may lead to missed class time, delayed
assignments, and an overall disruption of the learning process, which can negatively impact a
student’s academic performance.
The emotional and psychological impacts of service interruptions on ADA students with
learning disabilities can be significant. Students may feel overwhelmed, anxious, or stressed
when faced with unexpected disruptions to their learning environment. Service interruptions can
also lead to a sense of isolation and disconnection from the school community, as students may
feel left behind or unable to keep up with their peers.
Service interruptions can impact the ability of ADA students with learning disabilities to
access accommodations and resources in several ways. For example, if a student relies on a
specific accommodation that is only available in the classroom, they may not be able to access it
during a service interruption. Additionally, disruptions to communication systems may prevent
students from reaching out to teachers or other school staff to request accommodations or
support.
Strategies that can be implemented to support ADA students with learning disabilities
during times of service interruptions include: Providing additional online resources and digital
tools that students can access from home. Offering virtual office hours or tutoring services to
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help students stay on track with their coursework. Communicating regularly with students and
their families to ensure that they are aware of any changes or disruptions to the school schedule.
Creating a plan for how accommodations and support services will be provided during service
interruptions, such as offering online counseling or providing alternative means for students to
access assistive technology. Ensuring that teachers and other school staff are trained on how to
support students with disabilities during service interruptions.
Abstracts
According to (Cawthon et al, 2012) students with Learning Disabilities (SLD) face
unique challenges when entering postsecondary education after high school. Successful
navigation of postsecondary context requires knowledge of one’s own disability and needs as
well as access to what resources may be available at the institution. This study aimed to gather
SLD perspectives on accommodations use and obstacles they faced in gaining access to services.
A total of 110 undergraduate students at a selective, four-year public University completed an
online survey as part of a research subject pool requirement. The study collected information
about the following areas: (a) accommodations use, (b) opportunities/barriers faced during the
transition, (c) knowledge students had regarding their disability and available services, and (d)
self-advocacy strategies. Results indicated that this student population might not have used the
University resources to the extent they were available, pointing towards a potential need for
greater awareness of campus resources. However, it was also true that students generally knew
the implications of their disability and were utilizing many of the same resources they did in high
school. The article concludes with implications for education professionals who serve SLD
(Vickers, 2010) Providing Accommodations for College Students with ADD, ADHD, and
Dyslexia.
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Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and
other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are
shrouded in secrecy. This paper examines the nature of this assistance and discusses the policy
questions it raises. This research report is based on interviews with on-campus experts in
learning disabilities, professors who deal with learning-disabled students, and students
themselves. It incorporates statistics showing the rise in accommodations for college students
with mild learning disabilities. The paper is not about severe disabilities such as autism, brain
injuries, or visual or hearing impairment. The rise in accommodation by universities has been
fueled by changing diagnoses of learning disabilities and federal laws. Federal requirements are
not as demanding as laws that apply to K-12 students. Those requirements could change,
however, depending on the outcome of a court case currently under consideration.
In accordance with (Holzer et al, 2019) the Test‐Taking strategy intervention for college
students with learning disabilities, limited research exists on empirically validated strategies to
assist college students with learning disabilities (LD). Given that students with LD demonstrate
fewer test-taking skills and higher levels of test anxiety than their peers without LD, and poor
test-taking skills contribute to higher test anxiety, such research is critical. The present study
examines the effectiveness of the test-taking strategy on test performance (timed/untimed),
degree of strategy usage, and time on test-taking tasks with a sample of university students with
LD. This strategy has been successful with adolescents with LD but has not been studied with
postsecondary populations. Results of a multiple baseline design suggested that the strategy was
an effective intervention for these students. Implications are discussed when co-occurring factors
impact adult learners’ suggestions for instruction, preservice training, and professional
development (Housel, 2020).
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This literature review explored areas often manifest in adult classrooms but insufficiently
addressed or overlooked in preservice training and in-service professional development for
educators of adults. Three overarching themes emerged: (a) educational background
considerations (e.g., significant interruptions in formal education), (b) disability considerations
(e.g., learning disabilities and students on the autism spectrum), and (c) status considerations
(e.g., domestic violence and mental health issues). This overview of the identified themes was
contextualized within andragogy, which posits ways adults learn differently from children.
Recommendations to enhance instructional approaches were interwoven throughout the review.
Following the overview and instructional recommendations, preliminary assertions for
strengthening preservice training and ongoing professional development for educators of adults
and areas for future research were advanced.
As stated (Krämer, 2021), presents a meta-analysis on cognitive (e.g., academic
performance) and psychosocial outcomes (e.g., self-concept, well-being) among students with
general learning difficulties and their peers without learning difficulties in inclusive versus
segregated educational settings. In total, we meta-analyzed k = 40 studies with 428 effect sizes
and a total sample of N = 11,987 students. We found a significant small to medium positive
effect for cognitive outcomes of students with general learning difficulties in inclusive versus
segregated settings (d = 0.35) and no effect on psychosocial outcomes (d = 0.00). Students
without general learning difficulties did not differ cognitively (d = −0.14) or psychosocially (d =
0.06) from their counterparts in segregated settings. We examined several moderators (e.g.,
design, diagnosis, type of outcome). We discuss possible selection effects as well as implications
for future research and practice a case study of perspectives pertaining to academic
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accommodations for postsecondary students with learning disabilities (Doctoral dissertation)
(Sigafoos, 2019).
Increasing numbers of students with learning disabilities (LD) are entering into
postsecondary education and seeking accommodations through the University’s disability service
office. The academic success of students with LD is contingent on the provision of
accommodations by instructors, which allows for equal educational opportunity. To investigate
the use of academic accommodations by postsecondary students with LD, the perspectives of
postsecondary students with LD and instructors were obtained pertaining to the practice of using
accommodations, the utility of accommodations, facilitators and barriers to the use of
accommodations, and how an understanding of disability law contributes to the use of
accommodations. Utilizing a mixed-methods research design, using a single university as a case
study, the present study triangulated data from three sources: (a) the University’s disabilities
service office student database, disaggregated for students with LD; (b) the University’s
disabilities service office student and instructor surveys, disaggregated for students with LD and
instructors who met inclusion criteria; and (c) interviews with students with LD and instructors.
Data analysis revealed that perceptions and attitudes held by postsecondary students with LD and
instructors, as well as peers without disabilities, influence the ability of students with LD to use
accommodations. Findings also indicated that increased self-advocacy and knowledge of
disability law have the potential to impact the practice of accommodations positively.
Furthermore, disability service procedures and instructors’ willingness and ability to
accommodate students have the potential to facilitate or hinder the use of accommodations by
students with LD. Implications for practitioners, future research, and limitations are discussed.
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Literature Review
Service interruptions are common occurrences in today’s society. Many factors can cause
them, but one of the most common is technological advances. In that sense, the impact of service
interruption on ADA students with learning disabilities is an important subject. The loss of
services significantly impacts the students, their families, and the entire community. The students
may have difficulty accessing educational resources and skills, which can significantly affect
their learning ability. Students unable to access needed academic support services may also
struggle with academic performance.
In addition, students unable to access appropriate services due to service interruptions
may experience anxiety or depression. Moreover, interrupted services can create additional stress
for the family due to a lack of stability in the home environment. These factors can make it
difficult for families to maintain a stable routine necessary for healthy development (Jinnah et al,
2018). However, the impact on families can be even greater when they face financial hardship
due to interrupted services or raised costs associated with additional caregiving responsibilities.
The impact of service interruption on ADA students with learning disabilities is a current
research issue. A recent study focused on the effects of service interruption on students with
learning disabilities in the education sector. The study was conducted to determine whether or
not service interruptions affected their academic performance. The results of this study showed a
significant decrease in academic performance among students with learning disabilities when
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they could not receive services from their school system due to an emergency or other
unforeseen circumstance. In addition, it was observed that most of these students experienced
increased anxiety due to the lack of support from their teachers and school staff members
(Cawthon et al, 2012). This anxiety led them to withdraw from school activities and engage in
negative behaviors such as drug use or violence towards themselves or others around them.
Similarly, another study suggests that students with learning disabilities are more likely to
have a disruption in their services than students without disabilities (Krämer et al, 2021). This is
because the students have fewer options for support when they lose access to their routine, and
the lack of options may result in additional stress. The study also found that students with
learning disabilities experienced less reported satisfaction after losing access to these services
than those not involved with special education services. The researchers suggest that this may be
due to a feeling of helplessness or loss of autonomy that can occur when these individuals lose
access to their support systems (Krämer et al, 2021).
According to (Sigafoos, 2019) the importance of accommodations for students with
learning disabilities. She argues that these accommodations can improve academic outcomes by
reducing the impact of service interruptions on students with learning disabilities. She defines
accommodations as “any modifications or modifications not otherwise prohibited by law.” The
author also states, “Academically impaired students are at a greater risk for service interruption.”
Thus, the author reviewed four professors who were knowledgeable about academic
accommodations for postsecondary students with learning disabilities and provided them with a
list of questions about their experiences in providing these services to their students (Sigafoos,
2019). The results showed significant differences between respondents who experienced service
interruption and those who did not. Still, these differences were not always explained or
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supported by narrative data or statistical analysis. This suggests that missing pieces from this
research need further examination before they can be considered complete. However, they also
found some disadvantages, such as increased administrative workloads and costs and challenges
in ensuring consistency across institutions.
As stated (Housel, 2020) examination of the impacts of service interruption on students
with learning disabilities. The author uses a correlational design that includes the variables of
service interruption and student learning disability at each point in time to determine whether or
not their findings can be generalized to other populations. This research design includes several
advantages, such as its ability to control extraneous variables such as motivation and effort on
behalf of the participants. The author’s summary of the findings indicates that students
experiencing service interruptions are more likely to experience higher attrition rates than those
who do not experience such interruptions (Housel, 2020). This study also found that students
with learning disabilities tend to perform better when provided with additional resources for
support during these times, as well as an expectation that they will perform at their best despite
the circumstances. In accordance with (Brinckerhoff, 1992) demands at the high school level
differ from those in a postsecondary context both statistically and qualitatively.
In their study (Holzer et al, 2019) discuss the effectiveness of the test-taking strategy
intervention for college students with learning disabilities. They look at the literature on testtaking strategies and provide an overview of the research on using this approach to improve
academic performance. The researchers used various methods to gather data, including surveys,
interviews with both participants and non-participants of their study, and observations of both
groups during their testing sessions. This allowed them to gain insight into how these students
felt about their test-taking experiences and what factors might have led them to be interrupted in
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the first place. In addition, they also analyzed data from previous studies on similar topics to
compare results from their study with those findings; this helped them determine whether any
patterns existed between interruptions and test performance among different groups of people. As
a result, the authors found that the students who received support from tutors and peers
experienced improved scores after their services were interrupted than those who did not receive
these supports (Holzer et al., 2019). The authors also discuss how these results could be
replicated in other settings and what implications these results have for future research on this
topic. In general, their results showed a need to investigate the impact of service interruption on
ADA students with learning disabilities. It also highlighted the importance of understanding how
these students learn and process information during times of disruption in their services to ensure
they are not negatively impacted by it.
In accordance with (Vickers, 2016) discussions on some common issues faced by
students with learning disabilities while enrolled at college or University. These include feeling
overwhelmed by the amount of work they have been assigned, difficulty focusing in class
because they need more breaks than other students, and difficulty keeping up with classes. This
is attributed to the fact that they tend to fall behind during lectures or assignments due to not
having enough time allotted for studying each day before class begins again later in the day after
lunchtime ends (Vickers, 2016). The study finds many benefits to accommodating students with
learning disabilities and ensuring they can continue to succeed in their education despite
interruptions to their services. The authors recognize that these students often face challenges
when integrating into the classroom setting and learning new material due to their disabilities.
Still, they also find that this can be mitigated by providing accommodations such as extra time
for tests and studying between classes.
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Following all the above discussion, we found out that none of the studies concentrated
major on the other significant areas of service interruption impacting ADA students with learning
disabilities. As much as some tried to address the issue, there are still some unanswered
questions about the topic. This issue redirects back to my research question “Does the
interruption of services to a learning disability student have a negative impact on other areas
besides their academic performance?” From this, there is a very high possibility that service
interruptions could affect ADA students’ academic performance negatively as well as other
unidentified areas.
Methods
Participants
The participants in the study on the impacts of service interruption on ADA students with
learning disabilities are at least 20 PY510 students. This will consist of four groups of students.
That is students who have been affected by service interruption, students who have not been
affected by service interruption, students who have been affected by service interruption and who
are part of a group that has experienced service interruption, as well as students who have not
been affected by service interruption and who are part of a group that has experienced service
interruption. The reason for choosing these participants is that they are students that have
learning disabilities, and they are going to be affected by this study. As a result, a survey
instrument called the survey of impact on education (SIE). This survey will allow me to observe
how the participants would react if their services were interrupted by their school for five days
consecutively.
Materials to be Used
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The materials used in this study are most appropriate for this proposal because they
directly address the questions posed. They are all items that have been used in previous studies
on the topic of service interruption and learning disabilities. The first item is a questionnaire,
which many other studies have used to measure students’ reactions to service interruption. The
second item is a survey, which has also been used by many other studies to assess student
attitudes about service interruption. The third item is an interview, which many other studies
have also used to gather more information about students’ attitudes toward service interruption.
Finally, the fourth item is a focus group with ADA students with learning disabilities (Morgan et
al, 2012).
Procedure for Data Collection
The research question addressed in this proposal is “Does the interruption of services to a
learning disability student have a negative impact on their academic performance?” This question
has been addressed in previous studies, but much is still to be learned about how interruptions
affect academic performance. Consequently, using quantitative data on students with learning
disabilities and qualitative data and observations helped in understanding the impact of
interruptions on academic performance. In that regard, a standardized protocol has been used in
other studies (Morgan et al, 2012). This protocol includes collecting data at multiple points
throughout the day and asking students to complete any additional assignments they may have
missed. At the same time, they were disconnected from the internet. Students will be asked to fill
out an online survey that asks questions about their experiences with interruptions. These surveys
will be anonymous and confidential, so we can ensure that student’s privacy is protected.
Subsequently collecting data through observation and interview sessions at the beginning and
end of each day, during which we observe students’ behavior and interactions within our school
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environment. The intended conduct of interviews with students who have experienced
interruptions regularly (at least once per month) is to gain insight into why these interruptions
occur and what effects they have on academic performance.
Ethical Concerns
A number of ethical concerns come to mind when considering the study. First, there is the
issue of the student’s right to be in school. The ADA requires schools to provide free public
education, ensuring they can do so without interruption by service providers. Second, there is the
issue of privacy and confidentiality. Students need to feel safe sharing what they are
experiencing at school without fear that their information will be shared with anyone other than
those who need it (Chenneville et al, 2018). In that case, one is obligated to assure them of
confidentiality by not sharing any information provided with any other person.
Procedure for Raw Data Analysis
It is on the plan to use SAS for the data analysis. Also, the GLM procedure analyzes the
data, which is an extension of ordinary least squares regression and explains the relationship
between two or more variables (Blanca et al, 2018). By including interaction terms, control for
several factors at once is of importance and thus obtain a more comprehensive understanding of
the relationship between service interruptions and ADA students with learning disabilities.
Analytic Procedures
The first analytic procedure is critical to obtaining valid results from this study: a control
group must be studied to compare the effects of service interruptions on students with learning
disabilities and those without. If there is no comparison group, it will be impossible to know
whether service interruptions affect students with learning disabilities. A second analytic
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procedure is also important: before any participants are evaluated using any intervention
methods, they must first complete several measures of psychological functioning, such as selfconcept, and then undergo a structured diagnostic assessment that determines whether they have
learning disabilities. This way, we can determine if there is any correlation between service
interruptions and psychological functioning among students with learning disabilities before
administering interventions like Supervisory Attention Training (SAT) or peer tutoring sessions
to them in order to test their hypotheses about how these interventions might impact learning
disabilities among these students (Blanca et al, 2018).
Descriptive Statistics to be Employed
The descriptive statistics that are most informative in answering my research question are
the mean, standard deviation, and range (Blanca et al, 2018). The mean is the average of all
student scores for an individual or group. This can compare how students from different groups
perform on tests or exams. The standard deviation is used to find out how to spread a set of
scores around their mean. The range is the difference between each score and its mean. This can
show how close each score is to its mean.
Ethics of Data Analysis Methods
The methods (qualitative and quantitative) that are proposed to use in the data analysis
are ethical. First, they are ethical because they are based on established principles of
confidentiality, informed consent, and beneficence (Chenneville et al, 2020). These principles are
supported by the American Psychological Association (APA). These proposed methods meet
these ethical principles because they are guided by them and hold themselves accountable for
ensuring that participants’ privacy will be protected throughout the course of their study.
Anticipated Results
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The anticipated results of this study will show that service interruptions have a negative
effect on students with learning disabilities, especially because it is such a common problem for
them. When we consider their individual needs, there are many ways that a student’s disability
can be affected by service interruptions. For example, if students have trouble paying attention
when focusing on their work, they may have more difficulty staying focused on tasks when
waiting for something else to happen. Other students may experience more fatigue from staying
up late at night because they have trouble sleeping through the night if they do not get enough
sleep during the day.
Conclusion
The impacts of service interruptions on ADA students with learning disabilities are
significant and require further investigation. This study aims to shed light on these impacts and
identify strategies that can be implemented to support these students during times of disruption.
By doing so, this study can help to ensure that all students, regardless of their disabilities, have
equal access to educational opportunities.
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References
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