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Do we live in a Digital or Analog world?

ECE-0832: Digital World 2020
Fall 2017
Assignment #1
Directions: Project report and presentation slides are expected to be organized in a typical format. As an
example, a report may include sections like: Introduction/Background, Body, Conclusion, and
References. The presentation will be done in groups but the report will be individual. All submissions (in
PDF format) are accepted electronically using Canvas.
In this assignment, the essay question is “Do we live in a Digital or Analog world?” You can make a
powerful case for either option (both or none as well). To answer the essay question, use the material you
learned in class as well as your own (from your field). Although this topic is broad, be concise and use
specific examples to present your view and relate it to your major. There is no wrong answer, just need
the relevant evidence to back up your findings. The essay report should be done individually.
Your PowerPoint presentation must be at least 15 slides. Your group will have a maximum of 20 minutes
to present. All members of the group must take an equal role in the presentation and incorporate the
findings of your reports. There is no specific format required. Students choose the design of the slides
(colors/fonts). You may use the textbook or the Internet. Students will work together in teams of three or
four. Group members will use visual aids such as images, tables, graphs, handouts or videos to structure
their remarks and underscore key points.
Your paper should be 1-2 pages long, with one inch margins, Times New Roman 11pt font, 1.5 spacing,
and single column. No plagiarism, use your own words, references and quotations. Everyone must
submit their own essay to Canvas by the due date. Only one person from each group needs to submit the
PowerPoint presentation to Canvas by the due date.
You will be graded based on 1) research contents, 2) outline and organization, 3) presentation argument,
4) relevance to major and 5) essay.
Digital World 2020
ECE-0832
Fall 2019
Goals and Objectives of This Course
For non-engineering students from diverse disciplines
◼ Taking the mystery out of modern day Digital Technology
◼ Understanding Digital Technology from basic concept to
application
◼ Digital Technology past, present, and future
◼ If you understand it, you can appreciate it, gain a leg up
Digital Technology is here to stay. Always ask yourself:
How is this relevant,
How am I influenced by this,
How can I influence this?
Technology Trends:
IEEE
(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
2018
1. Accelerators
2. 3D
3. Robotics
4. Cybersecurity
5. AI (Artificial Intelligence)
6. Industrial Internet of Things (IoT)
7. AR/VR (Augmented Reality/Virtual
Reality)
8. Deep Learning
9. Transportation
10. Blockchain
11. Digital Currency
12. Ethics
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
2019
Deep Learning Accelerators –
with faster hardware (HW)
Assisted Transportation –
assisted driving
Internet of Bodies (IoB)
Social Credit Algorithm – Using
computer to judge people,
impartially?
Advanced (Smart) Materials
and devices – self-destructing
packaging, env friendly material)
3
Technology Trends:
CES (Consumer Tech Assoc)-2018
https://www.forbes.com/sites/danielnewman/2018/01/16/top-18-tech-trends-at-ces2018/#44e83b28452f
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Convertible tablets and laptops
Smart Home Devices
Augmented Reality
Companion Robots
Chip Wars
Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Everything
Health Sensors
5G Technology (5th Generation wireless)
Smarter Cars
10.Facial Recognition
11. Virtual Reality
12. Smart Cities
13. Connected Devices Every where (IoT)
14. Wireless Charging
15. LED (Light Emitting Diode) TV
16. 3D printing more than plastic
17. Boosted Performance Analysis in Sports Tech
18. Drones (UX=User Experience, UI=User
Interface)
“From a budging standpoint to simply knowing what’s around the corner in your
industry, keeping up with enterprise tech trends is a key to staying competitive in
the digital world.” – Daniel Newman, CEO of Broadsuite Media Group, principal
analyst at Futurum and author of Futureproof.
4
Week1:
Information Revolution
Outline
◼ What exactly do scientists and engineers do?
◼ Definition of information, message and signal
◼ Components of Communication Systems
◼ Birth of the Digital Age
◼ Introduction to digital representation of signals
◼ Examples of analog and digital systems
◼ Moving forward in digital information technology
Making Dreams a Reality?





Can you imagine what your life be like without TVs,
radios, computers and automobiles?
What would your life be like if you could not text or
snapchat your family and friends?
What if there no X-rays and CAT scans to help
doctors diagnose injuries and illness?
What if the only way for you to get to school were to
walk or ride a horse?
We often take today’s great creations for granted
Making Dreams a Reality?



What new high-tech health treatment,
communications device, transportation vehicle or
digital entertainment experience will we all take for
granted in the coming years?
Computers that talk to us or even “think” for us? Cars
that drive themselves?
Engineers are already working on these devices
today!
What makes engineers different from
scientists?

Primary purpose of science and math is to help
humans understand and describe our world





How do cells divide?
What makes objects fall to the ground?
What are the basic building blocks of life?
What is the distance between the Earth and the Moon?
To answer these questions, scientists have followed
the scientific method
Scientific Method
1) Observe some aspect of the universe
2) Invent a tentative description (hypothesis)
consistent with what you have observed
3) Use the hypothesis to make predictions
4) Test those predictions by experiments or further
observations, and modify the hypothesis in light of
your results
5) Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no
discrepancies between theory and experiment or
observation
What makes engineers different from
scientists?

While scientists seek to explain how the world works,
engineers attempt to create new objects and devices





Cutting edge medical devices
Innovative video games
Safer cars
High-tech communication devices
While scientists rely on the scientific method,
engineers rely on engineering design and test
algorithms
Engineering Design & Test
Algorithms
1) Identify the problem or design objective
2) Define the goals and identify the constraints
3) Research and gather information
4) Create potential design solutions
5) Analyze the viability of solutions
6) Choose the most appropriate solution
7) Build or implement the design
8) Repeat ALL steps as necessary
Example: Designing a cell phone

Step 1: Identify the design objective


Step 2: Define goals and constraints


Movement, size, form, energy use, cost…
Step 3: Research and gather information


Build something that will allow humans to communicate with one another at
any time
Wireless radio telephones were being researched by the American
Telephone and Telegraph Company in 1930s, but these systems were more
like “walkie-talkies” than cell-phones
Step 4 to 8: Create, analyze, choose, build and test

International companies such as Sony, Nokia, Samsung, Qualcomm and
Motorola completed these steps
Information Revolution

Information (Latin: idea, conception)




Knowledge communicated or received concerning a particular fact or
circumstance
The information revolution has just begun
The changes we’ve seen during the past ten years are hardly the
beginning
We are headed toward an unprecedented change in every aspect of
how we communicate, educate, track information, solve medical
problems, and manage every aspect of life
Historical Perspective

Information and its uses have always been an integral part of
mankind




The very first indication of information communication/storage/retrieval
is considered to be through cave drawings
Mankind later developed pictures, words and subsequently languages to
more efficiently communicate with each other
Information sharing was made possible by the invention of the printing
press in the early 1450’s by Johannes Gutenberg through the process of
printing and distributing manuscripts
The printing press is widely thought of as
the origin of mass communication
Information Technology Timeline
Egyptian Book
of the Dead
75,000
B.C.
Rock
Carvings
1500 B.C.
(8 x 103) + (2 x 102) + (3 x 101) + (4 x 100)
10 raised to the power of …








100 =1
101 =10
102 =10×10=100
103 =10x10x10=1,000
104 =10x10x10x10=10,000
and so on
Also called Base-10 system
We have ten fingers
and use ten digits!
Coincidence?
There are other ways of representing numbers other
than using the digits 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9
7
Comparing decimal and binary
systems




While people routinely use decimal digits,
computers use binary digits.
The decimal system uses ten numbers (0,
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) to represent all
values. The binary system uses two
numbers (0 and 1) to represent all values.
In other words, computers use the “base-2”
system rather than the “base-10” system.
Counting in binary is simple (different, but
simple) because you use powers of two
instead of ten. Example follows.
8
Binary to decimal conversion
The same as calculating the value of a decimal system number
except use powers of two instead of powers of ten.

The binary number 1101 can be converted to decimal as follows:
(1×23) + (1×22) + (0x21) + (1×20) = 8 + 4 + 0 + 1 = 13

For understanding binary, it’s helpful to have a good command of
powers of 2:
20 = 1
21 = 2
22 = 2×2 = 4
23 = 2x2x2 = 8
24 = 2x2x2x2 = 16
25 = 2x2x2x2x2 = 32
26 = 2x2x2x2x2x2 = 64
27 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 128
28 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 256
29 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 512
210 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 1024
and so on…
9
Binary conventions

Most Significant Bit (MSB) and Least Significant Bit (LSB)

Binary: 1000000






If there is a “1” in the LSB of a binary number, then its decimal equivalent
is an odd number
If there is a “0” in the LSB of a binary number, then its decimal equivalent
is an even number
Subscripts: Note that the subscript “2” makes it clear a number is in
binary format and the subscript “10” makes it clear a number is in
decimal format.
For example, 1101012 , 20310


1 on the left side is the MSB
0 on the right side is the LSB
We normally omit “10” in the subscripts for the base-10 in daily lives.
This avoids confusion between a number like 110101 which can either
be binary, written as 110101(2) or decimal, written as 110,101(10)
10
Example: Converting a Base-2
Number to a Base-10 Number
What is the binary number 1110 in base 10?
Solution:
To determine the base 10 value of 1110, we need to scale the
appropriate powers of 2 by the values 1, 1, 1, and 0:
1 × 23 or one 8
1 × 22 or one 4
1 × 21 or one 2
0 × 20 or one 1
Summing these results together, we get
1 × 23 + 1 × 22 + 1 × 21 + 0 × 20
= 1 × 8 + 1 × 4 + 1 × 2 + 0 × 1 = 14

11
Let’s Use Binary to
“Command” a Machine
Turning “switches” to show decimal 9 in binary form
0
0
0
0
d0
0
0
1
OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OF
OFF ON
Label for
the
9
switches→ 2
28
20 = 1
21 = 2
22 = 2×2 = 4
23 = 2x2x2 = 8
24 = 2x2x2x2 = 16
25 = 2x2x2x2x2 = 32
27
26
25
24
23
0
0
1
OFF OFF ON
22
26 = 2x2x2x2x2x2 = 64
27 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 128
28 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 256
29 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 512
210 = 2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2x2 = 1024
and so on…
21
20
12
Conversion Among Bases

The possibilities:
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
13
Decimal, Binary, Octal, and Hex

Decimal is the number system that we use

Binary is a number system that computers use


Octal is a number system that represents groups of binary numbers
(binary shorthand). It is used in digital displays, and in modern
times in conjunction with file permissions under Unix systems.
Hexadecimal (Hex) is a number system that represents groups of
binary numbers (binary shorthand). Hex is primarily used in
computing as the most common form of expressing a humanreadable string representation of a byte (group of 8 bits).
14
Decimal (base 10)



The number system we are familiar with
Decimal number has base 10
Each digit is a number from 0 to 9
15
Binary




Binary number has base 2
Each digit is one of two numbers: 0 and 1
Each digit is called a bit
Eight binary bits make a byte
16
Octal




Octal number has base 8
Each digit is a number from 0 to 7
Each digit represents 3 binary bits
000=0
001=1
010=2
011=3
100=4
101=5
110=6
111=7
Was used in early computing, but was replaced by
hexadecimal
17
Hexadecimal


Hexadecimal number has base 16
Each digit is a number from 0 to 15: digits 0 to 9,
and the digits 10 through 15 are represented by A
through F







A = 10
B = 11
C = 12
D = 13
E = 14
F = 15
Each digit represents 4 binary bits
0000=0
0001=1
0010=2
0011=3
0100=4
0101=5
0110=6
0111=7
1000=8
1001=9
1010=A
1011=B
1100=C
1101=D
1110=E
1111=F
18
Common Number Systems
System
Base Symbols
Used by
humans?
Used in
computers?
Decimal
10
0, 1, … 9
Yes
No
Binary
2
0, 1
No
Yes
Octal
8
0, 1, … 7
No
No
Hexadecimal
16
0, 1, … 9,
A, B, … F
Yes
Yes
19
Conversion Among Bases

The possibilities:
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
20
Quick Example
2510 = 110012 = 318 = 1916
Base
21
Decimal to Decimal
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
22
Decimal to Decimal example
Weight
12510 =>
5 x 100
2 x 101
1 x 102
=
5
= 20
= 100
125
Base
23
Binary to Decimal
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
24
Binary to Decimal

Technique



Multiply each bit by 2n, where n is the “weight” of
the bit
The weight is the position of the bit, starting from
0 on the right
Add the results
25
Example
Bit “0”
1010112 =>
1
1
0
1
0
1
Binary Tutorial –

x
x
x
x
x
x
20
21
22
23
24
25
=
=
=
=
=
=
1
2
0
8
0
32
4310
26
Decimal to Binary
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
27
Decimal to Binary

Technique




Divide by two, keep track of the remainder
First remainder is bit 0 (LSB, least-significant bit)
Second remainder is bit 1
Etc.
28
Example
12510 = ?2








Technique
125 ÷ 2 = 62 R 1
62 ÷ 2 = 31 R 0
31 ÷ 2 = 15 R 1
15 ÷ 2 = 7 R 1
7÷2= 3R1
3÷2= 1R1
1÷2= 0R1
12510 = 11111012
29
Example
12510 = ?2
2 125
2 62
2 31
2 15
7
2
3
2
1
2
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
12510 = 11111012
30
Hexadecimal to Decimal
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
31
Hexadecimal to Decimal

Technique



Multiply each bit by 16n, where n is the “weight”
of the bit
The weight is the position of the bit, starting from
0 on the right
Add the results
32
Example
ABC16 =>
C x 160 = 12 x
1 =
12
B x 161 = 11 x 16 = 176
A x 162 = 10 x 256 = 2560
274810
Remember, in hexadecimal
A represents 10
B = 11
C = 12
D = 13
E = 14
F = 15
33
Decimal to Hexadecimal
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
34
Decimal to Hexadecimal

Technique


Divide by 16
Keep track of the remainder
35
Example
123410 = ?16



1234 ÷16 = 77 R 2
77 ÷ 16 = 4 R 13
4 ÷ 16 = 0 R 4
Remember, in hexadecimal
A represents 10
B = 11
C = 12
D = 13
E = 14
F = 15
123410 = 4D216
36
Example
123410 = ?16
16
16
16
Remember, in hexadecimal
A represents 10
B = 11
C = 12
D = 13
E = 14
F = 15
1234
77
4
0
2
13 = D
4
123410 = 4D216
37
Binary to Hexadecimal
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
38
Binary to Hexadecimal

Technique



Group bits in fours, starting on right
Convert to hexadecimal digits
Why group in 4 bits? Because each Hex needs 4 bits.
39
Example
10101110112 = ?16
10 1011 1011
2
B
B
10101110112 = 2BB16
40
Hexadecimal to Binary
Decimal
Octal
Binary
Hexadecimal
41
Hexadecimal to Binary

Technique

Convert each hexadecimal digit to a 4-bit
equivalent binary representation
42
Example
10AF16 = ?2
1
0
A
F
0001 0000 1010 1111
Remember, in hexadecimal
A represents 10
B = 11
C = 12
D = 13
E = 14
F = 15
10AF16 = 00010000101011112
43
Exercise (1) – Convert …
Decimal
33
Binary
Hexadecimal
1110101
451
1AF
Don’t use a calculator!
44
Exercise (1) – Convert …
Answer
Hexadecimal
Decimal
33
Binary
100001
117
1110101
75
451
111000011
1C3
170
000110101111
1AF
21
45
Exercise (2) – Convert …
Decimal
Binary
Hexadecimal
24
74
1B
10100110
Don’t use a calculator!
46
Exercise (2) – Convert …
Answer
Hexadecimal
Decimal
36
Binary
100100
74
1001010
4A
27
11011
1B
166
10100110
A6
24
47
Exercise (3) – Convert …
Decimal
Binary
Hexadecimal
C9
211
10
1011011
Don’t use a calculator!
48
Exercise (3) – Convert …
Answer
Hexadecimal
Decimal
201
Binary
11001001
211
11010011
D3
16
1000
10
91
1011011
5B
C9
49
End Note!
Hint: “10” is not “ten”
50

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