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Cultural Change

1. Modernization theory provides a model to explain how would cause social and cultural change.
A. traditionalism
B. dependency
C. the world system
D. industrial capitalism

2. Dependency theory identifies multinational corporations based in industrialized capitalist societies as:
A. advocates of increased economic and military aid
B. designers of global education programs stressing free market entrepreneurship
C. purveyors of a new imperialism, called neoimperialism
D. promoters of centralization of economic and political decision making

3. Resettlement of Mbuti Pygmies on plantations outside the rainforest by the government of Zaire has resulted in their:
A. participation in the national political process
B. contribution to the economy through taxation
C. increased success at agricultural production
D. declining health

4. The Ju/’hoansi or San foragers inhabit the modern nations of:
A. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana
B. Democratic Republic of the Congo and Rwanda
C. Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania
D. Venezuela and Brazil

5. The displacement of Native Americans from their tribal lands in the U.S. in order to make the land available to white settlers was:
A. accompanied mostly by outlaws and hired guns
B. a formal policy of the United States government
C. a myth invented by radical Indian activists
D. undertaken mostly by foreign immigrants

6. The adoption of the shotgun by Yanomamö hunters has resulted in:
A. depletion of game animals from rainforest habitats
B. protein surpluses in the Yanomamö diet
C. reduction of hunting ranges
D. independence from a Western cash economy

7. As a result of policies of industrialization and modernization under the Shah of Iran, the Qashqa’i nomads began to:
A. demand more autonomy
B. manufacture cigars
C. adapt an agricultural way of life
D. live in cities like Tehran

8. Christian missionaries to the Hawaiian Islands in the 19th century taught native children that their traditional cultural activities were:
A. gifts from God
B. to be honored and respected
C. barbaric and uncivilized
D. similar to those of the ancient Hebrews

9. Cargo cults were successful at:
A. mobilizing political resistance against colonial powers
B. driving away Western settlers
C. increasing foreign exports
D. getting importation of soft drinks to Melanesia

10. Native American civilizations of Mexico and Central and South America were eventually conquered by:
A. English and French
B. Chinese and Japanese
C. Dutch and Germans
D. Spanish and Portuguese

11. The Spanish were able to achieve political domination of Mexico by:
A. capturing Tenochtitlán
B. establishing a trade route to the Pacific
C. conquering the Inca empire
D. converting the Indians to Christianity

12. East Africa was colonized primarily by the:
A. Spanish and Portuguese
B. French and Dutch
C. British and Germans
D. West Africans

13. The most significant factor in Latin American demographic change after the arrival of Europeans was a dramatic increase in:
A. fertility
B. mortality
C. employment
D. life expectancy

14. The principal effect of the hacienda system in Latin America was the institution of:
A. military authority
B. capitalistic authority
C. feudalistic authority
D. religious authority

15. One of the strategies used by European colonies to force native villagers to abandon agricultural lands and become wage laborers was:
A. the formation of labor unions
B. collection of taxes in cash
C. their recruitment into the military
D. construction of low-cost housing

16. Two examples of societies that were once considered “peripheral” but are now “semiperipheral” are:
A. Papua New Guinea and Bolivia
B. Honduras and Colombia
C. Mexico and Nigeria
D. Nicaragua and Paraguay

17. The term maquiladoras is used to refer to:
A. illegal Mexican aliens working in the U.S.
B. armed guerrillas operating in the Mexican countryside
C. factories in Mexico owned and run by multinational corporations
D. underage Mexican prostitutes

18. As a result of problems with debt repayment, the International Monetary fund required the Mexican government to cut back on:
A. social services
B. manufacturing
C. military spending
D. petroleum exports

19. A “closed peasant community” is one in which peasants produce agricultural goods primarily for:
A. local subsistence
B. foreign export
C. national markets
D. local industries

20. In open peasant communities, crops are raised primarily for:
A. local subsistence
B. outside markets
C. barter with other peasant communities
D. feeding livestock

21. Most anthropologists now agree that:
A. the historical experience of Africa was similar to that of Latin America
B. the general term “peasants” does not apply to peoples in African agricultural states
C. political diversity was much greater in Latin America than in Africa
D. the political economy of sub-Saharan Africa is largely homogeneous

22. African women in urban regions are rural women to receive a formal education.
A. more likely than
B. less likely than
C. as likely as
D. paid by

23. The term “Green Revolution” refers to the increased use of to increase food production in Third World countries.
A. traditional, organic farming methods that avoid the use of pesticides
B. intensive human labor for planting, weeding, and harvesting
C. renewable tree- and root-crop products of the tropical rain forests
D. mechanized agriculture, genetic engineering, and artificial hybrid crops

24. In the 1970s, a group of scientists known as the Club of Rome got together to assess global trends and predict the future of the world and the people on it. Using a neo-Malthusian perspective and computer models, they predicted:
A. There will be an infinite supply of natural resources for hundreds of years to come because biotechnology will make land more productive, and humans will invent new ways of doing things.
B. The world, as we know it, will end abruptly in 2048 because of the greenhouse effect, coupled with a nuclear winter.
C. Current global trends in population growth, energy consumption, and environmental pollution will exhaust the world’s natural resources within the next 100 years.
D. Biodiversity will increase, slowly smothering the world and all its occupants.

25. Julian Simon has challenged the Doomsday Model since he believes the problems of pollution and environmental stress will ultimately be solved because:
A. Space aliens will not allow the human race to become extinct.
B. World population will decrease due to epidemic diseases like AIDS.
C. Human creativity and science will provide the key to solving all problems.
D. Human populations cannot exceed the Earth’s carrying capacity.

26. Ethnographic research aimed at examining the Green Revolution, which is the spread of mechanized agriculture, has found that:
A. This revolution is proceeding smoothly in many Third World countries, providing much needed food for the lower classes, especially the small farmers.
B. These innovations have created a number of unintended social and economic problems, such as widening the gap between the rich and poor because wealthy farmers buy out smaller farmers, creating a class of landless peasants.
C. Many of the genetically engineered plants and animals do not survive and reproduce in different climates and geographical locations, creating problems of waste disposal of excess carcasses and erosion/soil degradation when plants die en masse.
D. Individuals in cultures other than the West have found that the mechanization of agriculture leaves them with too much free-time; as a result, crime, spouse abuse, and drug addiction increase exponentially.

27. According to ethnographic research conducted by Murray Leaf, the Green Revolution has been successfully implemented in:
A. Mexico City, Mexico
B. Shahidpur, India
C. Rio de Janiero, Brazil
D. Western Samoa
E. Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan

28. ________ is the necessary element for the possibility of the process of globalization.
a. Demography
b. Intensity
c. Impact
d. Technology

29. According to the anthropological tradition that runs from Lewis Henry Morgan through Leslie White to Marvin Harris, the driving force of cultural change is ___________.
a. Social organization
b. Demographic Transition
c. Technology
d. Ideological structure

30. According to our definition class, the process of globalization consists of global interconnectedness and _____________.
a. Flow of objects, images, symbols, and peoples across national boundaries
b. Internet and communication media
c. Breakdown of traditions and taboos because of exposure to exotic cultures
d. Breakdown of large states like the USSR into smaller nation-states

31. Most countries in Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa are in the —- stage of Demographic Transition
a. First
b. Second
c. Third
d. Zero

32. According to the anthropological tradition that runs from Lewis Henry Morgan through Leslie White to Marvin Harris, the driving force of cultural change is ___________.
a. Social organization
b. Demographic Transition
c. Technology
d. Ideological structure

33. Most countries in Latin America, the Caribbean and Africa are in the —- stage of Demographic Transition
a. First
b. Second
c. Third
d. Fourth

34. Americans are often shocked whenever a shooter, using military-style automatic weapons, commits mass murders but they do not want to ban people’s access to such weapons. This reluctance illustrates the division between optimists and pessimists towards contemporary globalization trends, which is, ______________.
a. A concern with the efficiency of a technological tool and its economic benefits rather than with the impact of that efficiency
b. A concern that such a technological innovation came into being in the first place
c. A concern that regulations will hamper the spread of that technological tool
d. A feeling of helplessness in the face of such technology

35. Our evaluation of technological innovation and spread should to be conducted 
a. Within the society where it was invented
b. Within the society where it is used
c. Within the society of its invention and that where it is used
d. Within the full natural context irrespective of where it was invented or used.

36. In a certain society, a house was doused with gasoline and set on fire, burning to death a young widow and her boyfriend. The elites of this society explained this horrible case as possibly motivated by the problem of land inheritance. This must be a(n) ______________ society.
a. Foraging
b. Pastoralist
c. Agricultural 
d. Industrial 
37. An anthropologist can settle a dispute between optimists and pessimists about contemporary global trends by
a. Getting facts about the intensity of global interconnections
b. Getting facts about the extensity of infrastructural networks
c. Getting facts about links between local practices and global processes
d. Getting facts about the negative impact of global processes. 


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