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Biology Question

View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.

Assignment 6 – Endomembrane System
Every submitted assignment in this class must have at least one reference and an in-text
citation to document the source. If you are confused by any of this, please take the time and
review the information in the Reference Module before you lose points on this assignment.
Describe the answers to the following questions sufficiently so that someone reading it can
understand what you mean. Make sure you check the rubric so you know how this assignment
will be graded. (14 points)
1. Describe Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum. Explain the roles of each in the cell.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a tube like continuous structure present in the eukaryotic
cell. It is a membrane system consisting of different domains with different functionalities
(Schwarz & Blower, 2016). The smooth endoplasmic reticulum lies close to the nucleus and is so
called because it lacks ribosomes. On the other hand, the rough endoplasmic reticulum lies
within the cytosol near the golgi apparatus and is lined by ribosomes (Rogers, 2019).
Roles of Smooth ER
➢ Synthesis of lipids such as phospholipids and cholesterol
➢ Storage of synthesized lipids
➢ Synthesis of steroid hormones in the adrenal gland
➢ Aid detoxification in the liver
➢ Has enzymes that aids the conversion of glycogen to glucose
➢ Aids contraction in skeletal muscle (Rogers, 2019)
Roles of the Rough ER
➢ Protein synthesis
➢ Protein folding
➢ Sorting and release of proteins

2. The Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum is created from Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum.
Explain the specific molecules and the process that work to make this occur. (A specific
molecule means that it has a name and a distinct role. Generic categories like “protein”
or “lipids” are not what is being asked for).
Ribosomes exist as membrane bound or free ribosomes. The membrane bound ribosomes
attach to the cytosolic portion of the Endoplasmic reticulum’s membrane. This attachment
gives it the rough texture, thereby making it the rough ER (Alberts et al., 2002)
3. Describe the Golgi apparatus. What is its role in the cell? Explain.
The golgi apparatus is a membrane bound organelle seen in eukaryotic cells (Hua & Graham,
2013). It consists of four to eight cisternae and is located in the cytoplasm just close to the
endoplasmic reticulum and the nucleus.
It has three compartments between two faces: cis and trans faces; the thinnest being the cis
face. The compartments include the cis, medial, and trans compartments (Rogers, 2019).
The major functions of the golgi are:
➢ Protein and lipid modification: This occurs between the cis and trans faces and commonly
involves the cleavage of the oligosaccharide side chain, alongside the attachment of sugar
moieties to replace the side chains. Phosphate groups or fatty acids may be added, while
monosaccharides may be removed during this phase (Rogers, 2019).
➢ Protein packaging and sorting: Proteins are sorted into different transport vesicles which
arise from the trans golgi network. These contents…

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