For this week you should read Section 14.4 of Chapter 14 of the textbook and do Questions 14.5 and 14.6 of Section 14.5. You should real all of Chapter 15 of the textbook. When you read the text that involves running R script you are expected to run the code by yourself on your computer, in parallel to reading it in the textbook, and compare what you get with the output presented in the textbook.
In the description of the statistical models that relate one variable to the other we used terms that suggest a causality relation. One variable was called the “explanatory variable” and the other was called the “response”. One may get the impression that the explanatory variable is the cause for the statistical behavior of the response. In negation to this interpretation, some say that all that statistics does is to examine the joint distribution of the variables, but casuality cannot be inferred from the fact that two variables are statistically related.
What do you think? Can statistical reasoning be used in the determination of causality?
As part of your answer in may be useful to consider a specific situation where the determination of casuality is required. Can any of the tools that were discussed in the book be used in a meaningful way to aid in the process of such determination?
The Learning Journal should be updated regularly (on a weekly basis), as the learning journals will be assessed by your instructor as part of your Final Grade.
Your learning journal entry must be a reflective statement that considers the following questions:
1. Describe what you did. This does not mean that you copy and paste from what you have posted or the assignments you have prepared. You need to describe what you did and how you did it.
2. Describe your reactions to what you did.
3. Describe any feedback you received or any specific interactions you had. Discuss how they were helpful.
4. Describe your feelings and attitudes.
5. Describe what you learned.
Another set of questions to consider in your learning journal statement include:
1. What surprised me or caused me to wonder?
2. What happened that felt particularly challenging? Why was it challenging to me?
3. What skills and knowledge do I recognize that I am gaining?
4. What am I realizing about myself as a learner?
5. In what ways am I able to apply the ideas and concepts gained to my own experience?
Finally, describe one important thing that you are thinking about in relation to the activity.
Your Learning Journal should be a minimum of 500 words.