For this week you should read all of Chapter 11 of the textbook. When you read the text that involves running R script you are expected to run the code by yourself on your computer, in parallel to reading it in the textbook, and compare what you get with the output presented in the textbook.
When large samples are at hand one may make fewer a-priori assumptions regarding the exact form of the distribution of the measurement. General limit theorems, such as the Central Limit Theorem, may be used in order to establish the validity of the inference under general conditions. On the other hand, for small sample sizes one must make strong assumptions with respect to the distribution of the observations in order to justify the validity of the procedure.It may be claimed that making statistical inferences when the sample size is small is worthless. How can one trust conclusions that depend on assumptions regarding the distribution of the observations, assumptions that cannot be verified? What is your opinion?For illustration consider the construction of a confidence interval. Confidence interval for the expectation is implemented with a specific formula. The significance level of the interval is provable when the sample size is large or when the sample size is small but the observations have a Normal distribution. If the sample size is small and the observations have a distribution different from the Normal then the nominal significance level may not coincide with the actual significance level.
The Learning Journal is a tool for self-reflection on the learning process. In addition to completing directed tasks, you should use the Learning Journal to document your activities, record problems you may have encountered and to draft answers for Discussion Forums and Assignments.
The Learning Journal should be updated regularly (on a weekly basis), as the learning journals will be assessed by your instructor as part of your Final Grade.
Your learning journal entry must be a reflective statement that considers the following questions:
1. Describe what you did. This does not mean that you copy and paste from what you have posted or the assignments you have prepared. You need to describe what you did and how you did it.
2. Describe your reactions to what you did.
3. Describe any feedback you received or any specific interactions you had. Discuss how they were helpful.
4. Describe your feelings and attitudes.
5. Describe what you learned.
Another set of questions to consider in your learning journal statement include:
1. What surprised me or caused me to wonder?
2. What happened that felt particularly challenging? Why was it challenging to me?
3. What skills and knowledge do I recognize that I am gaining?
4. What am I realizing about myself as a learner?
5. In what ways am I able to apply the ideas and concepts gained to my own experience?
Finally, describe one important thing that you are thinking about in relation to the activity.
Your Learning Journal should be a minimum of 500 words.